Chinese philosophy was born out of the Warring States Period 771-221 BCE and began to emerge 400-200 BCE.
In Taoism the universe is governed by a continually regenerating ‘way’ which is given substance by qì (气); the life energy that holds the universe together.
From 4 BCE two complimentary forces yīn (阴) and yáng (阳) forming the universe in a dynamic relationship emerged as a belief.
The five elements (wǔ xíng 五行) of fire (火 huǒ), water (水 shuǐ), wood (木 mù), metal (金 jīn), and earth (土 tǔ) interact in a relationship of conquest and production.
Confucianism focuses on human ethics and social rituals. Confucius was China’s ‘Supreme Sage’ who was born in 551 BCE in the Spring and Autumn Period.
Confucianism has eight key virtues righteous (yì 义), sincere (chéng 诚), trustworthy (xìn 信), benevolent (rén 仁), loyal (zhōng 忠), considerate (shù 恕), knowledgeable (zhī 知), filially pious (xiào 孝), and righteously adhering to rituals (lǐ 禮).
Filial piety is having respect for and supporting one’s parents and the elderly.
Harmony is Chinese’s philosophy’s central theme which is strengthened through rituals.
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